- The Elephant Ethogram
The body and extremities suddenly cease moving and the elephant Stands Head-Raising and Ear-Spreading with Ears-Stiff. The elephant may swing its head from side to side, Head-Swinging, as if to localise a sound. An individual rarely stands stock still except when Listening or Resting, usually some part of the body, ears, trunk, tail is in motion. Listening may be distinguished from Resting, during which an elephant relaxes it's head and ears allowing its head to hang below its shoulders and its ears to flop forward. All age/sex group may be observed Listening.
References: Heffner & Heffner 1982; Poole et al 1988; Langbauer et al. 1989; Poole & Moss 1989; McComb et al. 2003; Poole & Granli 2003; O’Connell-Rodwell et al 2006; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Ear-Spreading, Ears-Stiff, Head-Raising, Head-Swinging, Standing and occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Attentive, Vigilance