A combination call that consists of a short Cry followed by a Rumble without an inhalation. Cry-Rumbles are given by an infant or calf under the age of five years when in some form of mild distress (e.g. when denied access to the breast or when protesting unwanted contact by an older elephant). When a calf's Begging-Rumbles or Grumbling-Rumbles fail to induce its mother to stop and adopt a Suckle-Stance the calf may escalate it's begging to a higher-pitched Cry, Cry-Rumble, Roar, or Roar-Rumble.
Many of the Cry-Rumbles in our collection were recorded at feeding time among the orphaned calves in Tsavo at the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust. Feeding time is frenzied with calves pushing and shoving for access to the milk bottles and coconut cakes. Most Cry-Rumbles in the wild are made by Begging calves, although calves may also Cry-Rumble when in mild distress.
References: Poole 2011, Pardo et al 2019. (Full reference list)
This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Cry, Rumble and occurs in the following context(s): Calf Nourishment & Weaning, Protest & Distress