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    Poole, J.H., K.B. Payne, W.R. Langbauer Jr., C.J. Moss. 1988. The social contexts of some very low frequency calls of African elephants. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 22:385-392.
    Poole, J.H. and C.J. Moss. 1989. Elephant mate searching: Group dynamics and vocal and olfactory communication. In: The Biology of Large African Mammals in their Environment. Eds: P.A. Jewell & G.M.O. Maloiy. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Proceedings of Sym. Zool. Soc. Lond. 61:111-125.
    Poole, J.H. 1989b. Mate guarding, reproductive success and female choice in African elephants. Anim. Behav. 37: 842-849.
    Payne, K. 1998. Silent Thunder. Simon & Schuster, New York.: pp. 83-84.
  120. Poole, J.H. 1982. Musth and male-male competition in the African elephant. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Cambridge.
    Poole, J.H. 1987b. Elephants in musth, lust. Natural History. 96 (11): 46-55.
  121. Poole, J.H. 1982. Musth and male-male competition in the African elephant. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Cambridge.
    Poole, J.H. 1987b. Elephants in musth, lust. Natural History. 96 (11): 46-55.
  122. Poole, J.H. 1987b. Elephants in musth, lust. Natural History. 96 (11): 46-55.
  123. Moss, C. 1983. Oestrous behaviour and female choice in the African elephant. Behaviour 86:167-96.africana: A progress report (1991-1997). Elephant 2 (4): p. 19-21.
    Poole, J.H. 1994. Sex differences in the behavior of African elephants. In: The Differences Between the Sexes. Eds: R. Short & E. Balaban. Cambridge University Press.
    Poole, J.H. 1987b. Elephants in musth, lust. Natural History. 96 (11): 46-55.
    Kahl, M.P. & B.D. Armstrong. 2002. Visual displays of wild African elephants during musth. Mammalia 66:159-171.
  124. Moss, C. 1992. Echo of the Elephants. BBC Books, London. pp.: 58, 123 (photograph), 124.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 160.
  125. Harvey Croze cited in
    Moss, C.J. 1982. Portraits in the Wild. 2nd Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.: p. 34.
  126. Poole, personal observation.
  127. Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 155.
    Poole, J.H. 1998. An exploration of a commonality between ourselves and elephants. Special Issue Etica & Animali. 9:85-110.
  128. Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 94, also illustration.
  129. J. Poole, in press a.
  130. a. Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 94.
    b. Douglas-Hamilton, I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African Elephant, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.: p. 152.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 150, 151, 153, 155, 156.
    Payne, K. 2003. Sources of Social Complexity in the Three Elephant Species. In: Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, culture and individualized society. Eds: Frans B.M. de Waal & Peter L. Tyack. Harvard University Press.
    Moss, C.J. 1982. Portraits in the Wild. 2nd Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.: p. 34.
    Moss, C. 1992. Echo of the Elephants. BBC Books, London.
  131. Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 150, 151, 153, 155, 156.
    Poole, J.H. 1998. An exploration of a commonality between ourselves and elephants. Special Issue Etica & Animali. 9:85-110.
    P. Kahl & B. Armstrong, personal communication.
  132. Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 154.
  133. Lee, P.C. 1986. Early social development among African elephant calves. Natl. Geogr. Res. 2:388-401.
    Moss, C. 1988. Elephant Memories. William Morrow & Company, Inc. New York.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 155 (illustration), 156.
  134. Sanderson, G.P. 1907. Thirteen Years Among the Wild Beasts of India, 6th ed. John Grant, Edinburgh.: p. 156.
    Kühme, V.W. 1961. Beobachtungen am africanschen Elephanten (Loxodonta africana Blumenbach 1797) in Gefangenschaft. Z. Tiersychol 18:285-96.: pp. 287 (drawing), 294.
    Kühme, V.W. 1963. Ethology of the African elephant. Int. Zoo. Yearbook 4: 113-121.
    Poole, J.H. 1987b. Elephants in musth, lust. Natural History. 96 (11): 46-55.: pp. 52 (photo), 53.
    Buss, I.O. 1990. Elephant Life: Fifteen Years of High Population Density. Ames: Iowa State Univ. Press. 191 p.: p. 18.
    Estes, R.D. 1991. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. University of California Press, Los Angeles.: p. 265.
    Spinage, C.A. 1994. Elephants. T & AD Poyser, London.: p. 151.
    Balfour, D. & S. Balfour. 1997. African Elephants: A Celebration of Majesty. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. 168 p.: p. 45.
  135. Moss, C. 1988. Elephant Memories. William Morrow & Company, Inc. New York.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.
    Poole, J.H. 1998. An exploration of a commonality between ourselves and elephants. Special Issue Etica & Animali. 9:85-110.
  136. Moss, C. 1988. Elephant Memories. William Morrow & Company, Inc. New York.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 274.
  137. Moss, C. 1988. Elephant Memories. William Morrow & Company, Inc. New York.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 154-155.
  138. Payne, K.B. & W.R. Langbauer Jr. 1992. Elephant communication. In: Elephants. Ed: Shoshani J. Weldon Owen: San Francisco. p. 116-23.
    Langbauer, W.R. Jr. 2000. Elephant Communication. Zoo Biology 19:425-445.
  139. Moss, C. 1988. Elephant Memories. William Morrow & Company, Inc. New York.
    Poole, J.H., K.B. Payne, W.R. Langbauer Jr., C.J. Moss. 1988. The social contexts of some very low frequency calls of African elephants. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 22:385-392.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 275.
  140. Moss, C. 1988. Elephant Memories. William Morrow & Company, Inc. New York.
    Poole, J.H., K.B. Payne, W.R. Langbauer Jr., C.J. Moss. 1988. The social contexts of some very low frequency calls of African elephants. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 22:385-392.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 275.
  141. Lee, P.C. & C.J. Moss, 1986. Early maternal investment in male and female elephants calfs. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 18:353-361.
  142. Lee, P.C. & C.J. Moss, 1986. Early maternal investment in male and female elephants calfs. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 18:353-361.
  143. J. Poole, personal observation.
  144. Kühme, V.W. 1963. Ethology of the African elephant. Int. Zoo. Yearbook 4: 113-121.
    Poole, J.H. 1982. Musth and male-male competition in the African elephant. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Cambridge.
    Lee, P.C. 1986. Early social development among African elephant calves. Natl. Geogr. Res. 2:388-401.
    Langbauer, W.R. Jr. 2000. Elephant Communication. Zoo Biology 19:425-445.
  145. a. Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 93.
    b. Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 166.
  146. J. Poole, personal observation.
  147. a. Moss, C. 1988. Elephant Memories. William Morrow & Company, Inc. New York.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.:
    p. 156.

    b. Moss, C. 1992. Echo of the Elephants. BBC Books, London.: pp. 123, 129.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 98, 159.
    Poole, J.H. 2000b. When Bonds are broken. In: The Smile of the Dolphin: Remarkable Accounts of Animal Emotions, edited by Marc Bekoff. Discovery Books, New York.
    Payne, K. 2003. Sources of Social Complexity in the Three Elephant Species. In: Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, culture and individualized society. Eds: Frans B.M. de Waal & Peter L. Tyack. Harvard University Press.
  148. a. Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 134.
    Poole, J.H. 1999a. Signals and Assessment in African Elephants: Evidence from playback experiments. Animal Behaviour, 58:185-193.
    Payne, K. 1998. Silent Thunder. Simon & Schuster, New York.
    b. Poole, personal observation.
  149. Douglas-Hamilton, I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African Elephant, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.: pp. 137-138.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 41, 144-145, 222.
    Ben-Shahar, R. 1999. On the Trail of the Wild. Cologne, Germany: Könemann. 320 p.
  150. Kahl, M.P. & B.D. Armstrong. 2000. Visual and tactile displays in African elephants, Loxodonta africana: A progress report (1991-1997). Elephant 2 (4): pp. 19-21.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 153, 155.
  151. a. J. Poole, personal observation from playback experiments.
    b. J. Poole, personal observation.
    c. Langbauer, W.R. Jr. 2000. Elephant Communication. Zoo Biology 19:425-445.
  152. Douglas-Hamilton, I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African Elephant, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.: p. 143.
    Moss, C. 1992. Echo of the Elephants. BBC Books, London.: pp. 123, 124, 129.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 95, 98 137, 159.
    Payne, K. 2003. Sources of Social Complexity in the Three Elephant Species. In: Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, culture and individualized society. Eds: Frans B.M. de Waal & Peter L. Tyack. Harvard University Press.
  153. J. Poole, personal observation.
  154. Eisenberg, J.F., G.M. McKay & M.R. Jainudeen. 1971. Reproductive behaviour of the Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus L.). Behaviour, 38:193-225.
  155. a. Moss, C. 1992. Echo of the Elephants. BBC Books, London.
    b. Douglas-Hamilton, I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African Elephant, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.: p. 152.
    Moss, C. 1992. Echo of the Elephants. BBC Books, London. pp. 58, 60.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 98, 160, 161.
    Payne, K. 2003. Sources of Social Complexity in the Three Elephant Species. In: Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, culture and individualized society. Eds: Frans B.M. de Waal & Peter L. Tyack. Harvard University Press.
  156. J. Poole, personal observation.
  157. Moss, C. 1992. Echo of the Elephants. BBC Books, London.: pp. 60, 130.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: p. 159.
  158. Douglas-Hamilton, I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African Elephant, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.: p. 151.
    Harvey Croze cited in
    Moss, C.J. 1982. Portraits in the Wild. 2nd Edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.: p. 34
    Moss, C. 1992. Echo of the Elephants. BBC Books, London.: p. 123
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 95, 163, 164.
    Payne, K. 2003. Sources of Social Complexity in the Three Elephant Species. In: Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, culture and individualized society. Eds: Frans B.M. de Waal & Peter L. Tyack. Harvard University Press.
  159. C. Moss, personal communication.
  160. J. Poole, personal observation.
  161. Douglas-Hamilton, I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African Elephant, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.: p. 99 (photo). Note that we have called Douglas-Hamilton's Head-Jerk and Head-Toss: Head-Jerk. ElephantVoices' Head-Toss is redefined.
  162. J. Poole, personal observation from playbacks of predator calls.
  163. Douglas-Hamilton, I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African Elephant, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.: p. 136.
  164. Douglas-Hamilton, I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African Elephant, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.: p. 139.
  165. Douglas-Hamilton, I. 1972. On the Ecology and Behaviour of the African Elephant, D. Phil. Thesis, University of Oxford.: p. 164.
  166. Poole, J.H. 1982. Musth and male-male competition in the African elephant. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Cambridge.
    Poole, J.H. 1987a. Rutting behavior in African elephants: the phenomenon of musth. Behaviour. 102: 283-316.
    Poole, J.H. 1987b. Elephants in musth, lust. Natural History. 96 (11): 46-55.
    Poole, J.H. 1987c. Raging Bulls. Animal Kingdom 90 (6): 18-25.
    Poole, J.H. 1996. Coming of Age with Elephants. Hyperion Press, New York.: pp. 75, 77.
    Poole, J.H. 1999a. Signals and Assessment in African Elephants: Evidence from playback experiments. Animal Behaviour, 58:185-193.
  167. S. Alberts and E. Archie, personal communication.
  168. J. Poole, personal observation.
  169. J. Poole, personal observation.
  170. Poole, J.H. 1999a. Signals and Assessment in African Elephants: Evidence from playback experiments. Animal Behaviour, 58:185-193.
  171. S. Andelman, personal communication (1981).
    J. Poole & P. Granli, personal observations especially from playbacks.
    Rasmussen, 19??.
  172. J. Poole & P. Granli, personal observation from playbacks.
You may want to search for these or other papers through the
African Elephant Bibliography.