A mated female’s relatives and companions joining her in calling and displaying following a mating. Females streaming with Temporin, engage in Open-Mouth vocalising, calling with powerful Mating-Pandemonium-Rumbles, Roars, and Social-Trumpets while Head-Raising, Ear-Lifting and Tail-Raising. Their calls are associated with Rapid-Ear-Flapping and the aroused participants may Urinate and Defecate in excitement. Females may turn toward the male, reaching their trunks to touch his penis or his semen on the ground, or to touch one another, and, then, turn rapidly outward in a kind of Pirouette (away from the male; probably to ensure long-distance advertisement of availability of the oestrus female) and again, while Head-Raising, Ear-Lifting and Rapid-Ear-Flapping, continue to call. The Mating-Pandemonium is a form of Bonding-Ceremony and may include High-Fiving.

References: Poole 1982; Poole 1987b; Poole et al. 1988; Poole & Moss 1989; Payne 1998: 83-84; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Defecating, Estrous-Roar, Estrous-Song, Eyes-Wide, Head-Raising, Musth-Rumble, Open-Mouth, Open-Mouth-to-Open-Mouth, Pirouette, Rapid-Ear-Flapping, Roar, Rumble-Roar-Rumble, Sniff-Semen, Social-Trumpet, Tail-Raising, Temporin, Trunk-to-Genitals, Trunk-to-Mouth, Tusk-Clank, Urinating, Rumble, Estrous-Running-Rumble, Estrous-Rumble, Run-Toward and occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Courtship


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (1)

Amparo is Chased by Esau and other males. Esau tries Reaching-Over but she keeps running. She Tail-Swats to monitor how close Esau is. We hear her bond-group Rumbling and Social-Trumpeting in excitement in the background. Then we hear her emit a series of Estrous-Running-Rumbles and two Estrous-Roars as she is caught and Mounted by Esau. It appears to be a successful Mating and we hear the start of a Mating-Pandemonium as her family rushes to the scene. This is very intricate behavior to try to annotate and we have only marked some of the behaviors that occur during a Mating-Pandemonium.

As Amparo begins her Estrous-Song with a series of Open-Mouthed Estrous-Rumbles that are associated with Rapid-Ear-Flapping members of her family Rumble and Social-Trumpet overlapping their calls with hers. We see a young tuskless female, Dram, come in from the left Rumbling with an Open-Mouth and Rapid-Ear-Flapping as she moves to join Amparo. Dram is followed by a straight tusked female (and several calves) who appears to be Qapella. She Runs-Toward Amparo Rapid-Ear-Flapping and we believe she gives a Social-Trumpet. She moves to Amparo's side and Amparo greets her Trunk-to-Mouth - both display Head-Raising and Open-Mouths as they do. The calling continues though softer and is drowned out by the wind. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (2)

Amparo is Chased and Mated by a medium sized male in musth. Immediately before the Chase Amparo had permitted the male to drive her. He stayed Mounted for 26 seconds. As the Mating came to an end we hear the first Rumble. Amparo gives an Estrous-Rumbles and others join in a Mating-Pandemonium, Rumbling, Social-Trumpeting and a long Nasal-Trumpet. There is Rapid-Ear-Flapping with each of the Rumbles and Tail-Raising by the most vocal participants.

We see Amparo's closest friends - a tuskless female and another female and their calves. This is a bit distant but you can see elephants gravitating toward her and hear the calling. Pascal obviously hears it too as he disrupts the pair 2 minutes and 45 seconds later and takes over. The clip has been edited to shorten it. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (3)

After a Chase at a run or at a fast Walk and Pascal attempting to Reach-Over her to slow her movement, Amparo herself chooses to stop and the Rumbling of onlookers begins. With a full Penis-Erection attempts intromission. Amparo gives an Estrous-Roar and is streaming with Temporal-Gland-Secretion. Miranda - also in estrus, rushes over Rapid-Ear-Flapping. We can see a thread of semen. He achieves intromission on the 6th thrust; it lasts 32 seconds. We hear a Social-Trumpet and Miranda Rumbles and Rapid-Ear-Flaps. A family member and calf approach Rumbling and there is more Social-Trumpeting.

As he dismounts we can see semen gush from Amparo's vagina and she gives an Estrous-Rumble with Open-Mouth and Chin-Out. Miranda Rumbles and Amparo gives another Open-Mouth Estrous-Rumble. She steps forward giving another Estrous-Rumble with Open-Mouth and Tail-Raising. More Rumbling and Social-Trumpeting as the family and others gather around in a Mating-Pandemonium. Miranda, Amparo and a relative all Rumble.

Miranda approaches Pascal and reaches Trunk-to-Genitals, which causes her more excitement and renewed Rumbling. More Social-Trumpeting. Amparo steps forward again Tail-Raising. Estrous female Miranda Runs-After her Ear-Folding and Amparo Runs-Away. Miranda Rapid-Ear-Flaps and Backs-Toward Pascal. Miranda stands Rapid-Ear-Flapping with Open-Mouth and is likely Rumbling. Pascal follows Amparo. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (4)

Pascal is in musth and Amparo is in estrus and they are in Consort. This is the 4th day that she is in estrus and she is at her peak. At the start of the clip we see Pascal standing next to Amparo with a Penis-Erection. Pascal then begins a series of courtship behaviors for 2 and a half minutes: Reaching-Over her and Resting-Head on her three times and in between these gently Driving her - pushing and nudging her from side to side and reaching his Trunk-Toward her. Meanwhile, Amparo cooperates and shows she is ready by Backing-Toward him. She Stands-to-Mate.

As the other elephants realise what is about to happen they walk toward her to watch. Tuskless Dram Rumbles and Amparo joins her with an Estrous-Rumble. Dram Rumbles twice more. As Pascal circles Amparo preparing her and himself, Dram walks over to sniff Pascals penis, reaching Trunk-to-Genitals and then Rumbles again. The tension in the group is palpable and two younger males in the background get into a Duel, Tusk-Clanking. An elephant Trumpets. Another male Runs-After them.

Meanwhile, Pascal steps back and forth shifting his weight from one foot to the other as he prepares to lift himself onto his hind legs and Dram Rumbles again. Pascal mounts and appears to achieve intromission on the 5th thrust. As he enters her he raises up and we can see that Amparo appears to be lifted up by his penis - we see her Kick-Back with first one leg and then the other as she seems to be almost standing on her toes - her hind legs out-stretched. Pascal remains inside her for 29 seconds and the other males mill around them.

As he begins to dismount we hear the Open-Mouth Rumbling starts in earnest - first by tuskless Dram and then Amparo begins her Open-Mouthed Estrus-Rumbling, and someone gives a Social-Trumpet. Amparo Tail-Raises and we see semen gush from her vulva. She Backs-Away giving more Estrus-Rumbles. Then we hear Dram Rumble again and then Amparo - back and forth many times as we can see by their alternating Rapid-Ear-Flapping. We hear someone give a Social-Trumpet. A young male reaches Trunk-to-Genitals and she Kicks-Back at him a few times and Tail-Swats him. By now the Rumbling has tapered.

There is one last powerful Rumble exchange between Dram and Amparo at the end but otherwise the exchanges are very soft and it is difficult to see who is calling. We have not included all the Mating-Pandemonium behaviors but note the Rapid-Ear-Flapping and Open-Mouths associated with the powerful calls. Amparo is streaming with Temporin and Dram, too, has Temporin. The females engage in Tail-Raising. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (5)

Nastya (circled occasionally) of the ND family is in estrus for the first time. She is closely associated with a female with a broken right tusk who does not seem to be in the ND records. Her mother, Nayanka, is not immediately with her. We misread the situation and missed the start of this Mating and Mating-Pandemonium and had to start filming from a distance in horrible wind. The audio recordings are, therefore, very poor.

As the clip starts a large adult male is Mating with Nastya and her family has gathered around Open-Mouthed Rumbling, Rapid-Ear-Flapping and Tail-raising and reaching Trunks-Toward. We move the car closer and just manage to film the arrival of Nastya's mother Nayanka, who Greets the female with the broken right tusk - both Head-Raising and Ear-Lifting and Open-Mouthed Rumbling in what appears to be Greeting-Rumbles. The male who Mated Nastya is distracted at this point as he is aware that higher ranking musth male, Pascal is on his way. As a consequence he is not Guarding Nastya and she is not experienced enough to know to stick by his side. She allows a young male to come between her and her mate just as Pascal is closing in and her mate, facing Pascal, Head-Shakes in annoyance.

The little male takes this opportunity to corral Nastya Reaching-Over her back. Nastya runs and Nayanka, fearing to be caught in the middle, runs the opposite direction. All is chaos, as it often is with a female in her first estrus. Nastya gives an Estrous-Roar as she is Chased and the large adult male Runs-After them as the whole family follows. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (6)

Nastya gets separated from her Guarding male again. Because she is not quite at peak estrus, Pascal is not really interested, but is hanging around biding his time. Meanwhile he has disrupted the order of things such that the guy who was Guarding her has been compromised and she has been chased by the many males who are present.

In this clip she is chased by three males: A young male, who manages a Reach-Over, then a medium sized male and then a large male. By the time we catch up with her the medium sized male is Mated with her and the family has erupted in a Mating-Pandemonium. We hear a Social-Trumpets, Rumbles, a Rumble-Roar-Rumble another Social-Trumpet and more Rumbles. Her mother, Nayanka, and the broken tusked female are the most excited, but others too are Tail-Raising, Rapid-Ear-Flapping, Head-Raising, Ear-Lifting, and Defecating. Nastya backs up and Head-Shakes. In a close-up we see her with her mother and the broken tusked female and a calf all of whom are testing her Trunk-to-Genitals.

We are not able to mark all of the behaviors on the clip. During the Mating-Pandemonium two more males arrive and eventually Pascal shows up and tests her Trunk-to-Genitals again. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (7)

Pascal is in musth and Qadija is in estrus. Pascal has been Guarding her all day. We have seen signs that they are about to Mate.

As this clip starts Pascal with a Penis-Erection Pursues Qadija who engages in an Estrous-Walk, Looking-Back. As Pascal gets closer she slows. With an Open-Mouth Pascal Reaches-Over and she Stands-to-Mate. Pascal Mounts her and appears to achieve intromission on the 7th thrust. Rumbling by other family members can be heard followed by a Roar-Rumble by Queiroz (she is latter seen to give the most powerful calls). Qadija Kicks-Back at Pascal and other males gather around them reaching Trunk-Toward them.

There is another powerful Rumble by an elephant out of view. Pascal is Mounted for 25 seconds and Rumbling by family members continues. As he dismounts Qadija rushes forward and gives an Estrous-Rumble which is answered by Pascal Musth-Rumbling, Queiroz Roar-Rumbling and then another Estrous-Rumble by Qadija who then Head-Shakes. Qadija is Tail-Raising and she moves away from Pascal. There is another Rumble and then a Social-Trumpet.

Queiroz Rumbles five more as she walks toward Qadija. Qadija gives another Estrous-Rumble. Queiroz continues to Rumble as Pascal follows Qadija. As Queiroz reaches the spot where the Mating took place she gives another Rumble-Roar-Rumble. Qadija runs toward her and Queiroz gives a Social-Trumpet and then a couple more Rumbles. Then Queiroz walks toward the rest of the family who are standing in a tight group with Qoral’s newborn. As she walks up another female Rumbles to her. Qadija follows along with Pascal and other males and there are more Rumbles.

Allomother Qaskazi is trying to get the infant to Comfort-Suckle from her. A caller out of view Rumbles and then Qadija gives an Estrous-Rumble. There are two Social-Trumpets one by the female closest to us who then reaches Trunk-to-Genitals to sniff Pascal’s penis and then Rumbles. Qaskazi appears to Rumble in respond to her Rumble.

Queiroz begins her Rumbling again with two Rumbles in quick succession and Qaskazi appears to give a Coo-Rumble to the infant who she is very occupied by while Qoral is distracted by the commotion. Queiroz walks past the infant touching him Trunk-to-Mouth and gives a loud throaty Rumble that sounds like a Mating-Pandemonium type Rumble not one to the baby. (Amboseli, Kenya)