A combination call that starts with a Rumble (see Rumble) and is followed without inhalation by a Roar (see Roar).

References: Poole 2011, Pardo et al 2019. (Full reference list)

This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Roar, Rumble and occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Conflict & Confrontation, Protest & Distress


Context: Protest & Distress (1)

Walli is with her two calves, a 5 year old male and an infant female. The 5 year old is bullying the infant female, attacking her and preventing her from Suckling. She is highly distressed, trying to access the breast, but each time she tries he runs around from the other side and she flees Crying and Roaring.

As the clips starts we see her running forward and giving a Husky-Cry, while he is on the other side as he tries to Suckle. The male comes around on the other side in view and the infant looks terrified - her Chin-Up and ears flattened against her body. She gives another Husky-Cry. And they as he Suckles she gives a Rumble-Roar though this still has Husky-Cry quality to it like a Husky-Cry-Roar. She gives another Husky-Cry and we hear Walli respond with a Rumble - likely a Coo-Rumble and then she Husky-Cries again. Though we can't see what is going on as the filmmaker is adjusting the position of the camera. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)


Context: Protest & Distress (2)

There is tension around an estrous female. A fight has broken out between two males - one with two broken tusks and another with longer curved tusks. The have just clashed. In unusual behavior two additional males have sided with the broken tusked male in a coalition against the longer tusked male. They gang up on him and outnumbered he turns and Runs-Away emiting a V8-Rumble followed by a Rumble-Roar and another V8-Rumble. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Coalition Building (1)

An adult female and two tuskless calves, one about four and the other about 6 are feeding on grass. As we drive up we are unaware that another four year old - the son of the female on the left is separated from the family about 50 meters away and it is probably concern about him that stimulates their response. They react to us in a dramatic fashion, initiated by the larger tuskless juvenile female who -Rumble-Roars twice. The other tuskless calf seems to Rumble-Roar, too. The mother on the left Head-Shakes and Trumpets and the other adult female comes running over to help, also Trumpeting.

These are what we would call Social-Trumpets. They Bunch and the two mothers Stand-Tall, Rumbling and Reach-Touch one another and continue to Rumble. The female on the right Trumpets again. The older tuskless reaches Trunk-to-Mouth to the littler one. They Listen. The mother on the right reaches Trunk-to-Mouth to her tuskless calf. The older tuskless touches the younger again, too. They begin feeding again, but continue Rumbling.

We move the car and the female who is missing her male calf Rumbles and then Listens as we stop. Her male calf suddenly comes into frame - we have been hearing him give Separated-Rumbles. He walks to his mother and begins Suckling and then they all move off. The initial behavior and vocalizations are what we call the catch-all term ''Bonding-Ceremony''. (Amboseli, Kenya)