A combination call that starts with a Roar (see Roar) and is followed without inhalation by a Rumble (see Rumble).

References: Stoeger-Horwath et al 2007; Poole 2011 Pardo et al 2019. (Full reference list)

This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Roar, Rumble and occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Calf Nourishment & Weaning, Conflict & Confrontation, Courtship, Protest & Distress


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (1)

Pascal is in musth and Qadija is in estrus (circled at the beginning). Pascal has been Guarding her all day. We have seen signs that they are about to Mate.

As this clip starts Pascal with a Penis-Erection Pursues Qadija who engages in an Estrous-Walk, Looking-Back. As Pascal gets closer she slows. With an Open-Mouth Pascal Reaches-Over and she Stands-to-Mate. Pascal Mounts her and appears to achieve intromission on the 7th thrust. Rumbling, a Snort-Rumble and a Roar-Rumble by other family members can be heard as the Mating-Pandemonium begins - based on what takes place later the Roar-Rumble is likely Quieroz. Qadija Kicks-Back at Pascal and other males gather around them reaching Trunk-Toward them. Pascal is Mounted for 25 seconds and Rumbling by family members continues.

As he dismounts Qadija rushes forward and gives an Estrous-Rumble which is answered by Pascal Musth-Rumbling and then another Estrous-Rumble by Qadija who then Head-Shakes and a Roar-Rumble by Queiroz. (Amboseli, Kenya)