An explosive burst of long (~5-7 seconds) powerful, throaty, highly modulated and overlapping rumbles when members of a social group come together after a period of more prolonged separation. We refer to these calls as Greeting-Rumbles. Typically, participants approach one another face to face and then, when they meet one another, may turn or Pirouette to stand in parallel while Head-Raising, Ear-Lifting, and streaming with Temporin. Audible Rapid-Ear-Flapping may be heard as the calling continues and the participants may Urinate and Defecate, and may engage in Tusk-Clicking, Open-Mouth-to-Open-Mouth, High-Fiving and reciprocal Trunk-to-Mouth. After the initial explosive greeting, an exchange of lower intensity and less modulated Rumbles continues as the greeting proceeds.

References: Moss 1981; Poole & Moss 1983; Poole et al 1988; Poole 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Affiliative


Context: Affiliative (1)

Pat Derby, Ruby and others come together with a Purposeful-Walk. As they approach one another we hear deep Greeting-Rumbles and they begin Rapid-Ear-Flapping. A young female opens her mouth (Mouth-Open) and gives a loud Social-Trumpet. Ruby (tuskless) is streaming with Temporin. The Rumbling continues as they move rapidly forward with Pat Derby in the lead. Pat Derby gives a loud Ear-Slap and as she turns we see that she, too, is streaming with Temporin.

As they come closer to the camera we hear more and very clear Greeting-Rumbles. Ruby pauses to Urinate and we see that in addition to Temporin she has Ear-Secretion. Pat Derby comes forward and stops to Listen, then she Rumbles really loudly as if in response to someone she can hear. Ruby listens, too, and we think we heard a distant call - several respond. All get Temporin, even the calves though the adult females are really streaming. A minute later after the end of the clip they meet others and there is a loud exchange but the filmmakers had car difficulties.

We hear roaring and a social trumpet. We see later that there is Greeting-Ceremony that the filmmakers missed that is with matriarch Gina f0263 and others. So while it might be tempting to think of these calls as Contact-Rumbles by the context the sound quality and the behavior matches Greeting-Rumbles. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)


Context: Affiliative (2)

Gina (right) and Carolyn (left) are engaged in a Greeting. Unfortunately the beginning is cut off, but Gina is Rumbling and Carolyn gives loud throaty Greeting-Rumble type response with an Open-Mouth. They are Rapid-Ear-Flapping. They reach out with a Reciprocal-Trunk-to-Mouth. Gina continues to reach toward Carolyn who Orients-Away while still Rumbling and Rapid-Ear-Flapping. Carolyn Kicks-Dust as she turns. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)


Context: Affiliative (3)

V-Notch has been off somewhere and suddenly comes Sashaying from bushes and giving a Little-Greeting-Rumble as she approaches the others. We see and hear her mother, Grumpy Grandma, responding to her with a Little-Greeting and another young or juvenile female, too. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)


Context: Affiliative (4)

Unfortunately we cannot see the elephants well and the wind is very strong rendering some of the video useless. The clip we have put together starts with a view of a tree and a clump of bushes where most of Grumpy Grandma's family are resting. Matriarch Grumpy Grandma herself is not among them. Early on, but not included in this selection, were some Rumbles that sounded like Contact-Calls and as the second scene starts we hear a couple of powerful Social-Trumpets and Greeting-Rumbles. So we surmise that they are communicating with and greeting someone important to the family - though there is still no sign of this "person".

Rumbling continues and, after some time, we can just see through the bushes a calf arriving - it is Latino's little 18 month old male. And then another calf comes and finally we see Grumpy Grandma walking toward them. As she arrives the Greeting-Rumbles and Social-Trumpeting begin afresh. Note that Grumpy Grandma arrives with Temporin as expected in a Greeting-Ceremony. (Maasai Mara, Kenya)


Context: Affiliative (5)

The NDs have been at a mud wallow with Pascal in musth. Nine year old Nastya in estrus has been off separately being followed around by males. As she arrives at the mud wallow a female closely allied to her Head-Shakes and moves toward her. They both Head-Raise, Ear-Lift and give Greeting-Rumbles to one another. The older female reaches Trunk-to-Genitals to Nastya. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Affiliative (6)

Nine year old Nastya is in estrus and has been separated from her family for over an hour. She has been Contact-Calling and there have been answers. As this clip starts Nayanka, her mother, stands Waiting for her to come and Nastya walks toward her followed by males. Then they both walk toward each other.

When they are five meters apart Nastya stops and begins with a throaty Open-Mouthed Greeting-Rumble and Nayanka responds with a lower and softer Greeting-Rumble. Both are Rapid-Ear-Flapping and Nastya in particular is Head-Raising and Ear-Lifting and Tail-Raising. Nayanka comes to her reaching Trunk-to-Mouth as Nastya Rumbles again with an Open-Mouth and Nayanka again responds. Both Urinate. Nastya calls a third time with an Open-Mouth - longer tri-modal call and perhaps more complaining sounding. And Nayanka reaches to her again and then Trunk-to-Mouth and holds it in her Open-Mouth as Nastya gives a final Rumble. Then Nayanka turns back toward the family with a Head-Shake. The two pause Tail-Raising. Nastya reaches Trunk-to-Genitals, touching her mother's clitoris. Then the two walk together with all the males in tow. Nayanka got Fresh Temporin 3 during the Greeting. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Affiliative (7)

Matriarch Qoral, her newborn and Qasima's 10 year old daughter Qasnazi are at a mudwallow when the rest of the family arrives. There is a Greeting initiated by Qasima who comes up first who gives a Greeting-Rumble which is answered by Qoral and Qaskazi. Qasima walks past her daughter and reaches her Trunk-Toward Qoral who turns toward her. Qasima Head-Raises and Ear-Lifts and Greeting-Rumbles again and Orients-Away. She Rumbles again. The audio is very poor due to the wind and some technical issues. (Amboseli, Kenya)