Standing by or over the body of a dead elephant (or other animal or human) and defending it from predators or other elephants, by threatening approaching individuals. The elephant remains vigilant, monitoring the perceived threat and may engage in Displacement-Behaviour, half-heartedly plucking at vegetation or dusting, for example, but any movement or sound from the perceived threat results in increased vigilance and a variety of intention movements that indicate an aggressive action could follow.

References: Douglas-Hamilton 1972: ch 6; Croze 1971; Moss 1992: 123; Poole 1996: 95, 163, 164; Payne 2003; Poole & Granli 2003. (Full reference list)



This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Advance-Toward, Chin-Up, Displacement-Feeding, Displacement-Grooming, Ear-Spreading, Forward-Trunk-Swing, Displacement-Object-Play and occurs in the following context(s): Death