A forceful expulsion of air through the trunk creating a short, sharp, noisy, broadband snort followed by a more tonal trumpeting sound. This is a combination call given in one exhalation. Snort-Trumpets are rarely heard, but like Snorts and Trumpets may be given during high arousal such as when when an elephant is surprised, annoyed or indignant about something, or during an event of intense social excitement. We have noted that Snorts given in these contexts may be less explosive Trumpets. If so, a Snort-Trumpet may result if the expulsion of air through the trunk is increased part way into the Snort.

References: Poole & Granli 2021. (Full reference list)

This behavioral constellation includes the following behaviors: Snort, Trumpet and occurs in the following context(s): Affiliative, Calf Reassurance & Protection, Coalition Building, Conflict & Confrontation


Context: Calf Reassurance & Protection (1)

A Mating between Pascal and Qadija has just taken place a couple of minutes ago and a Mating-Pandemonium is ongoing. As the clip starts Queiroz, who has been most vocal during the Pandemonium, moves from left to right and the others begin to follow her. She gives another Rumble.

Then we think what happens is that Matriarch Qoral and mother of the newborn Pushes 10 year old allomother Qaskazi (daughter of Qasima) out of the way. Qaskazi then inadvertently knocks the infant over who Roars twice. Someone gives a very powerful Social-Trumpet.

There is a Snort followed at 13 seconds by a very weird, novel call that is difficult to classify - we have tentatively called is a Squeal-Trumpet because it sounds as though it originates in the trunk. Qasima with the convergent tusks has her Ears-Lifted and Head-Raised. She turns to faces us and Rumbles loudly. Qoral steps forward with her and someone, possibly Qaskazi, gives a Snort-Trumpet. Qasima Rumbles and Urinates. Qoral reaches back to check on her infant and Coo-Rumbles to him. (Amboseli, Kenya)