A relatively short (~1.5-3.5 seconds), noisy, pulsating Roaring call by an estrous female when pursued by a male. The Roar of an estrous female often begins as a series of short pulsated growling sounds before developing (or not) into a pulsating Estrous-Roar. This call has the immediate effect of attracting nearby and distant males, or alerting her Consort, or Guarding musth male, who may be dozing or otherwise occupied.

Estrous females are more likely to Roar in early and late estrus when they are chased by young, low-ranking non-musth males, than during peak estrus. A female in peak estrus is typically in Consort with a high-ranking Guarding musth male and, therefore, has less reason to call.

References: Poole 1982; Moss 1983; Poole 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (1)

An estrous female is Chased by six males. The largest male is immediately behind her. His running is hampered by his Penis-Erection which is flapping back and forth hitting his legs and we can see him running with his legs wider apart. He attempts to Reach-Over her but is unable to catch her. As he nears her she gives an Estrous-Roar and continues running. He slows and a younger male takes over. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (2)

An estrous female is Chased by a couple of males. A young male is immediately behind her and is Reaching-Over her back as they run towards our car. She does not stop for him. We hear a deep Rumbling waoo-waoo-waoo as he Chases her. This Rumbling we have always assumed was the female, yet it is similar to a lost calf when it is separated and running to look for its family. It could be the calf but the depth of the Rumbling suggests it is the estrous female. As he almost able to stop her she gives two Estrous-Roars. A larger male enters the scene from the right and the younger male abandons his effort. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (3)

Amparo is Chased by Esau and other males. Esau tries Reaching-Over but she keeps running. She Tail-Swats to monitor how close Esau is. We hear her family Rumbling and Trumpeting in excitement in the background. Then we hear her emit a series of Estrous-Running-Rumbles and two Estrous-Roars as she is caught and Mounted by Esau. It appears to be a successful Mating and we hear the start of a Mating-Pandemonium as her family runs to the scene. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (4)

We find two large males in musth and we can tell by their eager behavior that they are frantically looking for an estrous female. Paolo is the larger of the two and takes the lead with a Musth-Walk - Purposeful-Walk, Chin-In, Head-High and Ears-Stiff.

In this clip we see him as he tries to locate the female. We hear an Estrous-Roar and he quickens his pace as he understands she is being Chased. Just after this clip a young female appears being Chased by a 16 year old male. Her mother is running ahead of her estrous daughter with oestrus posture, apparently demonstrating oestrous behavior. The oestrous female is mated by the young male (we just miss the mating) and then by Paolo. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (5)

Nastya is in estrus nearby. We are filming a male who is Drinking. Suddenly he stops Listening. After a few seconds we hear an Estrous-Running-Rumble followed by an Estrous-Roar. He immediately leaves Drinking and disappears from view heading in the direction of the commotion. This is a good example showing that elephants differentiate between different call types. (Amboseli, Kenya)