Standing or moving with head held well above shoulders, chin tucked in (Chin-In), so that the elephant looks squarely at its adversary with ears and tusks held more perpendicular to the ground. Typically, the ears are maximally forward (Ear-Spreading). This posture is used primarily to threaten other elephants, particularly by males in musth.

References: Eisenberg, McKay & Jainudeen 1971; Poole 1982: 77 & illustration 4.7, Moss 1983; Poole 1987a; Poole 1987b; Poole 1987c; Poole 1988; Poole 1992; Poole 1996: 75, 77; Poole 1997; Poole & Granli 2003; O’Connell-Rodwell et al 2011 [Head held up]. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Aggressive, Submissive


Context: Advertisement & Attraction (1)

A medium sized male has just been displaced by this musth male who is testing Angelina. She has just given birth and he is assessing what her reproductive state is. We see him Flehmen and even Push against her almost as if he might Drive her. He Ear-Folds repeatedly at the medium sized male who stands a little distance away watching. At one point we see him draw himself up in a real Head-High, Chin-In musth posture and he does a little "Kick-Dust" as the other male. (Amboseli, Kenya)