A short (1.5-3 seconds in duration) loud, Open-Mouthed, highly modulated, and acoustically noisy ‘wooooaaaarrrrr' or ‘barooo' sounding rumble by an infant, calf, or, on occasion, juvenile that carries a protesting, or whining tone. This call tends to be produced when an infant or calf is comforted by a family member after suffering some ‘injustice’ (e.g. have been pushed, kicked, tusked, denied access to the breast) or after experiencing something frightening or distressing. We refer to this call as a Baroo-Rumble.

References: Poole 2011. (Full reference list)

This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Calf Reassurance & Protection, Protest & Distress


Context: Protest & Distress (1)

Annelies of the ABDC family has a newborn who is having difficult getting across the ditches along the road. Annelies is being helped by a couple of allomothers, but is in the midst of a larger aggregation with the MBs who are not totally friendly. Something happens on the road between Annelies and Maria, we think, and Annelies steps forward away from her infant and with Open-Mouth gives what seems to be a Baroo-Rumble. Then Maria comes forward Ear-Folding and there are a couple of Alarm-Trumpets, likely from the allomothers. Annelies steps back to Retrieve her infant joining the two allomothers.

Meanwhile Maria Kicks-Back toward the infant. Mother and allomothers touch the infant with their trunks and one allomother Urinates. Another MB female is sniffing the infant from behind and the Head-Shakes. As Annelies Shepherds her infant off the road another two MB females step up onto the road behind them. There is a Trumpet. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Protest & Distress (2)

The NDs are trying to Drink at a rather difficult place with a steep bank.As the clip starts Ndabele has just been Pushed over by a female from another family, it seems. We missed that part but we see Ndabele on the ground and her mother, Nashota, using her trunk and tusks to Lift her up, Helping her to her feet. Ndabele gives a powerful Baroo-Rumble with an Open-Mouth. We can see that her mother is also Rumbling. She touches Ndabele Trunk-to-Mouth and Ndabele gives another Open-Mouth Baroo-Rumble.

Other family members comes rushing over to see what is wrong and there is Rumbling by Nashota and others. Then for a third time Ndabele gives a long Open-Mouth Baroo-Rumble. Someone Trumpets. A long low frequency throbbing Rumble follows. Perhaps directed at the female who Pushed her? Ndabele comes to the fore and bends down to Drink. Then as she moves away, the female who we think Pushed her comes forward and bends down to Drink while the others walk away, Ndabele Head-Shakes and follows the others. (Amboseli, Kenya)


Context: Protest & Distress (3)

We are not confident that this is a Baroo-Rumble but have included it here with an explanation. Queiroz's 6 month male calf has wandered off before and Queiroz was earlier seen calling for him. At that time he came to her and Suckled. But throughout a long period of Suckling (over 7 minutes) he was complaining - with Begging-Rumbles, Cry-Rumbles and Roars because his mother kept moving and he wasn't getting what he wanted. There is a lot of uneasiness in the group because Qadija is in estrus and about to Mate and adult males are moving through the group disrupting the peace.

In this clip we see Queiroz and her calf walking away and then we see the estrus female walk from left to right in the background. Queiroz seems to anticipate the approaching of fast-moving males and pauses and calls to her calf, who answers, overlapping her call with what sounds like a Baroo-Rumble in a sort of complaining tone. He calls and then continues to move away from her and walks on to stand with two other females before we lose sight of him. We have circled the moment he calls as well as his location and his mother's. Could he have complained because he did not want to stay with her? Or was this not a Baroo-Rumble but just an answer to her call? We are unsure. (Amboseli, Kenya)