A series of modulated and, typically overlapping, or ‘chorused’ tonal rumbles, given by female elephants in response to the arrival of a musth male. Component Rumbles last 3.2-5.7 seconds in duration. Adult and juvenile females join in the Rumbling chorus that may also include Snorting, Trumpeting and, occasionally, Roaring. We refer to this pattern of calling to a musth male as a Female-Chorus.
Females may also engage in Female-Chorus-Rumbling when a family member is tested by a musth male, or in response to hearing a Musth-Rumble, and may even call upon locating the scent-trail of a musth male. When females call in these contexts they often Urinate, Defecate and secrete Temporin from their temporal glands. When females are highly aroused, their chorused calls can include powerful and throaty rumbles.
References: Poole 1982: 37; Poole et al 1988; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole 2011. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Courtship