An elephant dragging the distal and outer portion of a curled trunk on the ground making a rasping sound; often leaves a continuous or intermittent snake-like mark on the ground. Musth males, particularly, may drag their trunks along the ground for long distances (3 kilometers has been observed) when Walking or Tracking another elephant; musth males and elephants of both sexes may drag their trunks on the ground as a threat at very close range.
References: Kahl & Armstrong 2002; Poole & Granli 2003; Poole & Granli 2011 [Trunk-Bounce-Drag]. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Aggressive, Attacking & Mobbing