As performed by a musth male, raising and lowering the head or lifting and swinging head and trunk with vigor, sometimes in figure-of-eight movement. This display is occasionally seen in combination with a Trunk-Curl. In its most intense form the musth male bends his back legs and lowers the hind portion of his body causing the head and trunk to be raised even higher. Less exaggerated forms may be observed in non-musth elephants.
References: Poole 1982: 51; Poole 1987a; Kahl & Armstrong 2002; Poole & Granli 2003; [Head Oscillation]. (Full reference list)
This behavior occurs in the following context(s): Advertisement & Attraction, Foraging & Comfort Technique