Bates, L.A., Sayialel, C.N, Njiraini, N.W, Poole, J.H., Moss, C.J. & Byrne, R.W. 2007. African elephants have expectations about locations of out-of-sight family members. Biology Letters: doi: 1098/rsbl.2007.0529, 1-3.

Bates, L.A., Sayialel, C.N, Njiraini, N.W, Poole, J.H., Moss, C.J. & Byrne, R.W. 2007. Elephants classify human ethnic groups by odour and garment colour. Current Biology. Doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.09.060.

Langbauer Jr., W.R. 2000. Elephant Communication. Zoo Biology 19:425-445.

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Rasmussen, L.E.L. & B. Munger. 1996. The sensorimotor specializations of the trunk tip of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus. The Anatomical Record 246:127-134.

Rasmussen, L.E.L., A. Hall-Martin & D.L. Hess. 1996. Chemical profiles of African bull elephants (Loxodonta africana); physiological and ecological implications. J. Mammalogy. 77:422-439.

Rasmussen, L.E.L., B.A. Schulte. 1998. Chemical signals in the reproduction of Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Animal Reproduction Science. 53:19-34.

Rasmussen, L.E.L. & V. Krishnamurthy. 2000. How chemical signals integrate Asian elephant society: he known and the unknown. Zoo Biology. 19:405-423.

Riddle, H.S., S.W. Riddle, L.E.L. Rasmussen & T.E. Goodwin. 2000. The first disclosure and preliminary investigation of a liquid released from the ears of African elephants. Zoo Biology 19: 475-480.

Schaffer, J. 1940. Die Hautdrusenorgane der Saugetiere. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin.

Schulte, B.A. & L.E.L. Rasmussen. 1999. Signal-receiver interplay in the communication of male condition by Asian elephants. Anim. Behav. 57:1265-1274.

Schulte, B.A. & L.E.L. Rasmussen. 1999. Musth, sexual selection, testosterone and metabolites. Advances in Chemical Communication in Vertebrates 8. Eds: R.E. Johnston, D. Muller-Schwarse & P.W. Sorenson. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, pp. 383-397.

Shoshani, J. 1997. It's a nose! It's a hand! It's an elephant's trunk! Natural History. 106.


You may want to search for these or other papers through the
African Elephant Bibliography.